5. 3D and Modeling

In art historical exploration, recreating a setting or object can often lead to new or deeper understandings. Today’s technologies offer a wide range of ways to create virtual facsimiles. Chapter 5 focuses on how three dimensional modeling can add to art historical research and study.

5.1 Readings

Beacham, Richard. “THEATRON Final Report, September 2009.” eduserv and King’s College London.

Bell, Mark. W. “Toward a definition of “virtual worlds”,” Journal of Virtual Worlds Research v1, n1 (July 2008).

Bentkowska-Kafel, Anna. “Processual scholia: the importance of paradata in heritage visualization.” In Paradata and Transparency in Virtual Heritage, edited by Anna Bentkowska-Kafel, Hugh Denard, and Drew Baker (Ashgate, 2012), 245-259.

Favro, Diane. “In the Eyes of the Beholder: Virtual Reality Re­Creations and Academia.” In Imaging Ancient Rome, edited by Haselberger, Lothar Williams Symposium on Classical Architecture and John H Humphrey, 321–34. Supplementary Series 61. Portsmouth, R.I.: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2006.

Favro, Diane. “Meaning in Motion. A Personal Walk Through Historical Simulation Modeling at UCLA,” In Visualizing Statues in the Late Antique Forum.

Fredrick, David. “Time.deltaTime: the vicissitudes of presence in visualizing Roman houses with game engine technology.” In the proceedings of the ISPR 2011: The International Society for Presence Research Annual Conference, Edinburgh, October 26-28, 2011.

Foni, Alessandro E., George Papagiannakis, and Nadia Magnenat-­Thalmann. “A Taxonomy of Visualization Strategies for Cultural Heritage Applications.” J. Comput. Cult. Herit. 3, no. 1 (July 2010): 1:1–1:21. doi:10.1145/1805961.1805962.

Forte, Maurizio. “About virtual archaeology: disorders, cognitive interactions and virtuality.” In Virtual Reality in Archaeology, edited by Juan A. Barceló, Maurizio Forte, and Daniel H. Sanders (Oxford: Archaeopress, 2000), 247-263.

Goodrick, Glyn, and Mark Gillings. “Constructs, simulations and hyperreal worlds: the role of virtual reality (VR) in archaeological research.” In On the Theory and Practice of Archaeological Computing (Oxford: Oxbow, 2000): 41-58.

Johanson, Christopher. “Visualizing History: Modeling in the Eternal City.” Visual Resources 25, no. 4 (2009): 403–18. doi:10.1080/01973760903331924.

Koutsoudis, Anestis, et al. “Multi-image 3D reconstruction data evaluation.” Journal of Cultural Heritage (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2012.12.003.

Limp, Fred, et al. “Developing a 3D digital heritage ecosystem: from object to representation and the role of a virtual museum in the 21st century.” Internet Archaeology 30. (2011) http://dx.doi.org/10.11141/ia.30.1.

Levoy, Marc, et al. “The digital Michelangelo project: 3D scanning of large statues.” In the proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2000, New Orleans, LA USA.

Maloney, Judith. “Fly me to the moon: A survey of American historical and contemporary simulation entertainments,” In Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, v6 issue 5, p 565 (October 1997).

McDonnell, Rachel, et al. “Render me real? Investigating the effect of render style on the perception of animated virtual humans,” In ACM Transactions on Graphics, v31, n4, article 91 (July 2012).

Messinger, Paul R., Eleni Stroulia, and Kelly Lyons. “A typology of virtual worlds: historical overview and future directions,” Journal of Virtual Worlds Research v1, n1 (July 2008).

Morgan, Colleen L. “(Re)building Çatalhöyük: changing virtual reality in archaeology,” In Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, v5, n3 (2009): 468-487.

Nelson, Brent, Melissa M Terras, and Lisa Snyder, eds. “Virtual Reality for Humanities Scholarship.” In Digitizing Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture, 395–428. Toronto, Ontario; Tempe, Arizona: Iter : Gateway to the Middle Ages and Renaissance ; ACMRS (Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies), 2012.

Pietkiewicz, Stefanie. “From brick to marble: did Augustus really transform Rome?” UCLA’s Institute for Digital Research and Education website (last accessed 12/8/15).

Saldana, M. 2015. “An Integrated Approach to the Procedural Modeling of Ancient Cities and Buildings”. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities. 30 (suppl 1): i148-i163.

Simonite, Tom. “The quest to put more reality in virtual reality,” MIT Technology Review, October 22, 2014.

Snyder, Lisa, and Scott Friedman. Software Interface for Real­Time Exploration and Educational Use of Three­Dimensional Computer Models of Historic Urban Environments. National Endowment for the Humanities, September 16, 2013.

Snyder, Lisa M. “Virtual reality for humanities scholarship.” In Digitizing Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture, New Technologies in Medieval and Renaissance Studies 3, edited by Brent Nelson and Melissa Terras (Tempe and Toronto: ACMRS and ITER, 2012): 395-428.

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5.2 Resources

A Critical History of Computer Graphics and Animation (focus on sections 1 to 4, 15 to 17): http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/lessons.html http://design.osu.edu/carlson/history/timeline.html

SketchUp User Guide: With pictures and screenshots, the user guide will walk you through the basic features and user interface for working with this 3D modeling tool.

SketchUp Help: Got SketchUp questions? Need a walk through or some troubleshooting help? The Sketch Up Help page can point you in the right direction for finding the solution or resource you need.

Archaeology Data Service / Digital Antiquity Guides to Good Practice:

1. “Laser Scanning for Archaeology.”: This document serves as a guide to good practice for the collection and archival of point cloud datasets and the additional derived products produced by terrestrial laser scanners in cultural heritage applications.

2. “Close-Range Photogrammetry.”: This document serves as a guide to good practice for the documentation and archival of close-range photogrammetry (CRP) datasets and the additional derived products produced by digital photogrammetry in cultural heritage applications.

CyArk Archive: CyArk uses cutting edge technology to capture detailed 3D representations of world’s significant cultural heritage sites before they are lost to natural disasters, destroyed by human aggression or ravaged by the passage of time.

Smithsonian X3D Beta: Smithsonian X 3D launches a set of use cases which apply various 3D capture methods to iconic collection objects, as well as scientific missions.

STARC research center of the Cyprus Institute: The Science and Technology in Archaeology Research Center (STARC) of The Cyprus Institute is devoted to the development, introduction and use of advanced science and technologies in the field of archaeology, cultural heritage and history of the region. The repository holds digital objects created in various projects over the last 5 years at the STARC research center of the Cyprus Institute. Together with digital objects it presents novel interactive methods for accessing and exploring information. Feel free to explore content and tools in what we hope will be enjoyable experience.

CAST/The Virtual Hampson Museum: This website represents a Virtual Museum of 3D artifacts selected from the collections at the Hampson Archeological Museum State Park in Wilson, Arkansas.

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5.3 Tutorials

SketchUp Basic Contents Tutorial: This guide covers the numerous 3D design and SketchUp concepts found within the product and in the user community including: designing in SketchUp, drawing quickly, viewing models in 3 dimensions, adding detail to your model, presenting your model, modeling terrain and organic shapes.  This section was primarily written for users who are new to 3D modeling or SketchUp.  This section does not cover how to do something in SketchUp, but covers important concepts necessary to model in 3D.

SketchUp Instructions: This documentation is a step by step walkthrough with screenshots of how to build a 3D object using SketchUp. Specifically geared to creating architectural structures, this tutorial is a great orientation to the key elements used in creating 3D models.

YouTube: For SketchUp tutorials, search the terms: Getting Started with SketchUp (Parts 1 and 2 are most useful), SketchUp: Model a House (Parts 1 and 2), SketchUp: Photo Match & Compositing (Parts 1 and 2), Harwood Podcast Sketchup #22: Custom Textures.

Learn How to User 123D Catch: Videos and documentation to help you get started, or get more advanced with 123D Catch – a free app that turns photos into 3D models.

Graphics Glossary: A list of commonly used graphics terminology and their definitions.

List of Tools: A comparison of 3D computer graphics software Virtual environments and 3D modeling.

Vectorworks Getting Started Guides: These guides are designed to provide you with a strong base as you learn to use Vectorworks to design, communicate, and document the ideas that you are passionate about. Click on the play button above to view the introduction video.

5.4 Tools

Building a 3D model is time-consuming. UCLA’s own Lisa Snyder has spent her career building a model of the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair. However, there are a few tools with lower barriers to entry.

SketchUp: SketchUp is the generally recognized starter-kit for building a 3D model. It is relatively easy to use, but it takes a significant amount of time to build something with it. However, its documentation is quite good.

123D Catch: With SketchUp, you draw a model yourself. With 123D catch, you build a model from photographs using a process called photogrammetry. It has an app that you install on your phone, and once you have taken many shots of the object you want to capture, 123D Catch will stitch those photos together to make a 3D object. The results are pretty impressive. Example (click on “3D View”).

3D Warehouse: Someone might have already made a 3D model for you! 3D Warehouse is a collection of 3D models, some of them quite elaborate, like this one of the Fisher Library at Penn.

VSim: We love VSim, AKA “PowerPoint for 3D models.” Developed by Lisa Snyder, it solves many common problems with 3D models. A 3D model on its own can be baffling to a viewer. And, especially when re-creating a historical artifact, the modeler needs to convey to her viewers why she made the decisions she did about its representation. VSim allows you to take the viewer on a guided tour of a 3D model. Even better, sources and documentation pop up in context as you move around the model, helping you to understand, for example, why Lisa made the Transportation building that particular shade of red. Here is a tour of VSim’s key features.

PhotoScan: Agisoft PhotoScan is a stand-alone software product that performs photogrammetric processing of digital images and generates 3D spatial data to be used in GIS applications, cultural heritage documentation, and visual effects production, as well as for indirect measurements of objects of various scales.

Vectorworks: Vectorworks CAD software is a line of industry-specific 2D/3D and BIM solutions that allow designers to advance their ideas from concept through completion.

Creator: Presagis Creator is the original software for creating optimized 3D models for real-time simulation.  Designed specifically for simulation applications, Creator allows content developers to work natively with OpenFlight data to output highly optimized models with advanced surface materials and multiple levels-of-detail. And, because of its streamlined modeling process, Creator helps content developers meet expectations on schedule.

3ds Max: The 3D software for modeling, animation, and rendering that allows you to create massive worlds in games and stunning scenes for design visualization.

Maya: Another software for 3D animation, modeling, simulation, and rendering software, Maya helps artists tell their story with one fast, creative toolset.

City Engine: Esri CityEngine improves urban planning, architecture, and design. Use its 3D visualization power to see the relationships of projects, assess their feasibility, and plan their implementation.

Google Earth: Google Earth lets you fly anywhere on Earth to view satellite imagery, terrain, 3D buildings, from galaxies in outer space to the canyons of the ocean. You can explore rich geographical content, save your toured places, and share with others in this free desktop and mobile application.

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5.5 Projects

1. Inscriptions

2. Digital Karnak

3. Digital Roman Forum

4. Digital Hadrian’s Villa Project

5.  Digital Sculpture Project

6. Mapping Gothic France

7. CyArk

8. MayaArch3D

9. Digital Pompeii

10. Augustan Rome in City Engine

11. UCLA Romelab

12. Contested Memories: The Battle of Mount Street Bridge

12. A Virtual Visit of the Saint Jean Cathedral of Lyon

13. Virtual Rosewood in the Rosewood Heritage Project.

14. 3D Giza

15. Paris 3D

15. SecondLife: Search for and visit the Western Front (1917, Training Camp), the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the ASU Virtual Heritage sites (There is both an island and a ‘south’ group and the Lakeport Plantation is also recommended), the Alamo, and the Mar Vista Architectural Reconstruction of a Gregory Ain house.

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